Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common comorbidity of diabetes mellitus, but few studies investigated its prevalence in type 1 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of ED in young men with type 1 diabetes treated with different intensive insulin regimens. The study population included 151 type 1 diabetic men, aged 18-35 years, and 60 healthy age-matched controls. Ninety-four men were treated with multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI), and the remaining 71 with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). All participants in the study completed the International Index of Erectile function (IIEF-5), and other validated multiple-choice questionnaires assessing quality of life, physical activity, depressive symptoms and diabetes-related problems. The overall prevalence of ED was higher in diabetic men (37%), as compared with controls (6%, P<0.001). ED prevalence rates were similar in both MDI (36%) and CSII (39%) groups (P=0.326); both were higher compared with controls (P<0.001 for both). More than half of diabetic men (58%) had mild ED. Compared with men without ED, diabetic men with ED showed lower weight, body mass index, fasting glucose, insulin dose and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and higher self-rating depression score (SRDS). In the multiple regression analysis only the SRDS (P=0.032) were independent predictors of IIEF-5 score in the overall diabetic men. Young men with type 1 diabetes treated with MDI or CSII show a higher prevalence of ED, as compared with healthy age-matched men. Depression was associated with ED in diabetic population.
Sexual Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes at Diagnosis: Progression over Time and Drug and Non-Drug Correlated Factors
To present the longitudinal data of the SUBITO-DE study, a prospective survey involving male patients with new or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (<24 months).
Materials and Methods
Sexual function was assessed in male patients with T2DM at baseline (phase 1) and after a mean follow-up of 18 months (phase 2). Standard metabolic parameters and sexual and depressive symptoms were evaluated.
Six of the 499 enrolled patients died of different causes during phase 1. Of the 493 surviving men invited to participate in phase 2, 450 (mean age 59.0±9.0 years) (90.2%) accepted and 43 (8.2%) were lost to follow-up. As compared to baseline, the proportion of the men who reported improvement in erectile dysfunction (ED) at follow-up was nearly double that of the men who reported worsening of ED (22.6% vs. 12.8%). The increase in frequency of sexual activity the men reported at follow-up assessment indicates that many never treated before baseline were taking an ED drug during the study period (106 subjects). Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) were the ED drugs most commonly taken at both baseline and follow-up. An overall improvement over baseline values was observed in metabolic targets for T2DM and depressive symptoms. Conversely, no change in lifestyle behaviors was recorded during the study.
Sexual dysfunction is a major concern in men with T2DM. The SUBITO-DE study demonstrates that, when combined with adequate counseling and tailored PDE5i therapy, an integrated approach to achieving metabolic targets in men with T2DM can improve sexual function as well as depressive symptoms.
CONTEXT: The Testosterone Trials are a coordinated set of seven trials to determine the efficacy of T in symptomatic men ≥65 years old with unequivocally low T levels. Initial results of the Sexual Function Trial showed that T improved sexual activity, sexual desire, and erectile function.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the responsiveness of specific sexual activities to T treatment; to relate hormone changes to changes in sexual function; and to determine predictive baseline characteristics and T threshold for sexual outcomes.
DESIGN: A placebo-controlled trial.
SETTING: Twelve academic medical centers in the United States.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 470 men ≥65 years of age with low libido, average T METHODS:
Men were assigned to take T gel or placebo for 1 year. Sexual function was assessed by three questionnaires every 3 months: the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire, the Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function, and the International Index of Erectile Function.
RESULTS: Compared with placebo, T administration significantly improved 10 of 12 measures of sexual activity. Incremental increases in total and free T and estradiol levels were associated with improvements in sexual activity and desire, but not erectile function. No threshold T level was observed for any outcome, and none of the 27 baseline characteristics predicted responsiveness to T.
CONCLUSIONS: In older men with low libido and low T levels, improvements in sexual desire and activity in response to T treatment were related to the magnitude of increases in T and estradiol levels, but there was no clear evidence of a threshold effect.